Ken Adams

Who Owns the Copyright?

My previous post on the contract drafter as copyright violator sidestepped a very pertinent question—under U.S. law, who owns the copyright in a contract that a law firm drafts for its client? Law Firm or Lawyer? This question has two parts. First, as between a law firm and the lawyer who drafts the contract, who owns the copyright? The answer … Read More

“Coupled with an Interest”

When I redraft a contract, part of the task involves coming up with language that is equivalent to, but clearer and more efficient than, what’s already there—I rationalize verb use and defined terms, eliminate redundant synonyms, and so on. These kinds of changes are straightforward enough—it’s the structural changes that require more thought. But sometimes I’ll come across a phrase … Read More

Readability Tests and the Contract Drafter

Earlier this year I redrafted a complex commercial agreement and sent it off to the client. I received in response a comment that I hadn’t expected at all—that the readability score for my draft was rather low. This caused me to scratch my head—I’d never given a moment’s though to readability tests. So I did some rooting around online. (Here’s … Read More

More on Rhetorical Emphasis

In MSCD (13.37–38) I briefly discuss “rhetorical emphasis”—adding verbiage to a provision not to change its meaning but to make it more emphatic. I suggest in MSCD that as a general matter you’re best off dispensing with rhetorical emphasis—the function of drafting is to state rules rather than convince anyone of anything. Nevertheless, one or more parties might feel more … Read More


I’ve recently been thinking about the concept of “survival.” It crops up in contracts in three ways, and in each of those contexts it’s either unnecessary or inferior to an alternative approach. I discuss each of these three contexts below. Survival of Claims Sometimes an agreement will specify that any claims that arise before an agreement terminates will survive termination. … Read More

“From the Beginning of Time” and “At Law or in Equity”

Recently someone asked me about settlement and release agreements, and that put me in mind of a picturesque drafting usage that’s a fixture of release language—from the beginning of time, as in “Jones hereby releases Acme from any claims … arising from the beginning of time to the date of this agreement.” I searched for this phrase in the material … Read More

November 2006 Toronto Drafting Workshop

The box office is now open for the “Intensive Contract Drafting Workshop” that I’ll be conducting in Toronto on November 6–7, 2006, under the auspices of the Professional Development Program of York University’s Osgoode Hall Law School. For more information, go here. In particular, check out the brochure, a pdf of which is at the bottom of that page.

Revisiting “Representations and Warranties”

The Nov.–Dec. 2005 issue of Business Law Today contains my article A Lesson in Drafting Contracts: What’s Up with “Representations and Warranties?” Because in this article I give a categorical thumbs-down to a usage present in the overwhelming majority of corporate agreements, I was prepared for some pushback. So when Business Law Today published in its Jan.–Feb. 2006 issue Tina … Read More

New Article on MAC Provisions

I’ve just posted on the “Ken Adams’s Articles” page a copy of my article Understanding “Material Adverse Change” Provisions, which is in the June 2006 issue of The M&A Lawyer. As I explain in the article, it’s a more concise and practitioner-friendly version of the analysis of MAC provisions contained in MSCD and my law review article on the subject.

Pre-closing Knowledge of Inaccurate Representations

This weekend, I decided to explore the implications of the Buyer knowing, pre-closing, that a Seller representation is inaccurate. (I haven’t seen the various aspects of this topic treated together in any detail from the perspective of the drafter.) Here’s what I put together; you should consider it a first draft. I’d be happy to receive comments. Disclosing Pre-closing Knowledge … Read More