One Space or Two?

[Updated January 12, 2015, to integrate what had previously been bracketed updates.]

In A Manual of Style for Contract Drafting 12.21, I recommend that you use only one space, rather than two, after punctuation, whether it separates two sentences (periods, question marks, exclamation marks) or parts of a sentence (colons).

I’m hardly alone in this. The Chicago Manual of Style 2.12 (15th ed. 2003) says “A single character space, not two spaces, should be left after periods at the ends of sentences (both in manuscript and in final, published form) and after colons.” To my mind, that settles it, but I’ll note that The Associated Press Stylebook (2004) also calls for one space. So does Bill Walsh’s Lapsing into a Comma (2000). I could list others.

Nevertheless, even after rooting around online I remained uncertain what prompted use of two spaces and what prompts calls for use of one space. I found a helpful discussion of the issue in James Felici, The Complete Manual of Typography (2003). Here is what Mr. Felici has to say about “word spaces,” which he defines as blank characters created by pressing the spacebar on a keyboard:

Typewriter spaces have the attraction of always being the same size, so it was natural to use them in multiples for paragraph indents or gaps in a typewritten line. You could align things by adding word spaces before them.

Spaces in word processors and typesetting programs, though, have no fixed width, so they can’t be used in this role. Not only do the widths of word spaces (or space bands) vary from typeface to typeface, but they are also flexed—made wider or narrower—as lines of text are fit into a given line length, or measure. In fact, dedicated typesetting systems routinely ignored multiple word spaces, collapsing them into a single space, because consecutive spaces have no role in typesetting. Multiple word spaces were assumed to be a mistake.

Nevertheless, the habit of aligning text by using series of word spaces has persisted, mainly because word processing programs (and the desktop publishing programs based on word processing precedents) allow it. Indents should ideally be created with a program’s indentation commands or, less desirably, with the Tab key. Gaps in text should be created with a series of fixed spaces, such as em and en spaces, whose widths are constant unless the size of the type changes.

The typewriter tradition of separating sentences with two word spaces after a period has no place in typesetting. The custom began because the characters of monospaced typefaces used on typewriters were so wide and so open that a single word space—one the same width as a character, including the period—was not wide enough to create a sufficient space between sentences. Proportionately spaced fonts, though, contain word spaces specifically designed to play the sentence-separating role perfectly. Because of this, a double word space at the end of a sentence creates an obvious hole in the line.

In this 2011 Slate article urging people to stop using two spaces, Farhad Manjoo cites Felici. On the other hand, others are of the view that use of two spaces after a period can’t be attributed to the typewriter. Robert Bringhurst, The Elements of Typographic Style 28 (3d ed. 2004), regards it as a matter of typography fashion, calling it “this quaint Victorian habit.” For extensive analyses suggesting that use of two spaces has long been part of typographic design, see Dave Bricker’s blog post on the subject, here, and one on Hericlitean River, here.

Ultimately, though, the history of two spaces is less important than what we do with it now. As the online Chicago Style Q&A states, there’s no evidence that using two spaces makes text easier to read. Consequently, the only conceivable defense of the practice is that it’s harmless. But as also noted in the Chicago Style Q&A, using two spaces is inefficient, requiring an extra keystroke for every sentence, and is harder to control, in that any document created using the two-space rule is likely to contain a “a smattering of instances of both three spaces and one space after a period, and two spaces in the middle of sentences.”

But perhaps the deciding factor should be that all authorities recommend using one space. Consistency in typographic practice is a good thing, so join the herd and switch to one space.

Nevertheless, discussion persists. Frank Romano, professor emeritus of the School of Print Media at the Rochester Institute of Technology, told me that it comes up almost weekly, presumably to his chagrin. Of course, law firms and most lawyers are wedded to two spaces. It would be a mistake to assume that this is the result of a reasoned decision. Instead, you can attribute it to the same oblivious conservatism that has caused them to perpetuate any number of other deficient usages.


So if you’re still using two spaces, stop it—your credibility is at stake!

(This post was written from the U.S. perspective. I’d be interested to hear how this issue—if it is an issue—plays out in other countries.)

About the author

Ken Adams is the leading authority on how to say clearly whatever you want to say in a contract. He’s author of A Manual of Style for Contract Drafting, and he offers online and in-person training around the world. He’s also chief content officer of LegalSifter, Inc., a company that combines artificial intelligence and expertise to assist with review of contracts.